GEMS of SAPPhIRE: A Framework for Designing?

Srinivasan V and Amaresh Chakrabarti

ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a framework of designing for conceptual and early embodiment design that uses physical laws and effects explicitly as a central aspect for designing. This is especially important in domains that make explicit use of physical laws and effects in their design, such as novel sensors. The objectives of the paper are: (a) Develop a model, (b) Empirically evaluate the model and (c) Propose a framework. The model is developed by integrating the activity- and outcome-based elements. The model is validated empirically by analyzing protocols of design sessions to find instances of activities and outcomes. Based on the findings, a framework is proposed on how designing should be done. Elements of GEMS (Generate-Evaluate-Modify-Select) and SAPPhIRE (State change-Action-Part-Phenomenon-Input-oRgan-Effect) are used for developing the model. Empirical evaluation confirms that designing can be modeled with the activity and outcome elements. The paper concludes with the identification of areas that require support and future work.

KEYWORDS: Framework, Activity, Outcome, Conceptual Design, Physical Law, Physical Effect, Model

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